1. ____ programming language is a dialect of S.

a) B

b) C

c) R

d) K

Explanation: S was initiated in 1976 as an internal statistical analysis environment—originally implemented as Fortran libraries.

2. Point out the WRONG statement?

a) Early versions of the S language contain functions for statistical modeling

b) The book Programming with Data by John Chambers documents S version of the language

c) In 1993 Bell Labs gave StatSci (later Insightful Corp.) an exclusive license to develop and sell the S language

d) The book Programming with Data by IBM documents S version of the language

Explanation: Insightful sold its implementation of the S language under the product name S-PLUS.

3. In 2004, ________ purchased the S language from Lucent for $2 million.

a) Insightful

b) Amazon

c) IBM

d) TCS

Explanation: TIBCO is the current owner of the S language and is its exclusive developer.

4. In 1991, R was created by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman in the Department of Statistics at the University of _________

a) John Hopkins

b) California

c) Harvard

d) Auckland

Explanation: In 1993 the first announcement of R was made to the public. Ross’s and Robert’s experience developing R is documented in a 1996 paper in the Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics.

5. Point out the wrong statement?

a) R is a language for data analysis and graphics

b) K is language for statistical modelling and graphics

c) One key limitation of the S language was that it was only available in a commercial package, S-PLUS

d) C is a language for data and graphics

Explanation: In 1996, a public mailing list was created (the R-help and R-devel lists) and in 1997 the R Core Group was formed, containing some people associated with S and S-PLUS.

6. Finally, in _________ R version 1.0.0 was released to the public.

a) 2000

b) 2005

c) 2010

d) 2012

Explanation: Source code for the entire R system is accessible to anyone who wanted to tinker with it.

7. R is technically much closer to the Scheme language than it is to the original _____ language.

a) B

b) C

c) C++

d) S

Explanation: R’s semantics, while superficially similar to S, are quite different.

8. The R-help and _____ mailing lists have been highly active for over a decade now.

a) R-mail

b) R-devel

c) R-dev

d) R-del

Explanation: There is considerable activity on web sites like Stack Overflow as well.

9. Which of the following describes R language?

a) Free

b) Paid

c) Available for free trial only

d) Testing

Explanation: A major advantage that R has over many other statistical packages and is that it’s free.

10. The copyright for the primary source code for R is held by the ______ Foundation.

a) A

b) S

c) C

d) R

Explanation: It is published under the GNU General Public License version.

## History of R Programming Language

### The Birth of R: A Geeky Tale

It's the late '90s, and a group of statistical wizards dream up R. It's not just a language; it's a rebellion against the mundane. Cue the birth of our coding superhero!

R emerges as the brainchild of Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman at the University of Auckland. These coding maestros wanted a tool that could make statistics dance and data sing.

### R Grows Up: From Toddler to Teenager

As R steps into the early 2000s, it's like a mischievous toddler exploring its capabilities. The open-source community adopts it, and suddenly, R is not just a tool; it's a playground.

The R Consortium is formed, and developers worldwide join the coding fiesta. It's a teenage growth spurt for R, transforming it from a nerdy sidekick to a coding heartthrob.

### The Modern R Era: More Than Just Code

Fast forward to today, and R is the rockstar of statistical computing. It's not just embraced by statisticians; it's the go-to language for data scientists, analysts, and anyone who wants to decode the language of data.

R isn't just a programming language; it's a lifestyle. With an army of packages and a vibrant community, R has become the Picasso of data visualization and the Shakespeare of statistical analysis.

### Why You Should Care (Hint: MCQs Await!)

Now, you might be wondering, "Why the trip down memory lane?" Well, my curious coder, understanding the roots of R is like knowing the backstory of your favorite superhero.

And here's the kicker – the better you know R's history, the more you'll ace those R Programming MCQs. It's like having insider information to crack the code and emerge victorious in your coding quests.

In conclusion, the history of R isn't just a tale of code; it's a narrative of passion, rebellion, and triumph. So, next time you're immersed in R Programming, remember, you're not just coding; you're continuing a legendary saga!